Philosophy of the Mind

What separates the physical human brain and its mental state is completely determined by the consciousness and the state of MIND.

We are given many answers to this philosophical question, yet we are left skeptical with the responses were given as it is a hard to base any empirical evidence on what is the mind and how it is used as part of cognition to interact with the environment. There are a wide variety of explanations that explore the boundaries of the mind, which some of the time are not always bound to the body or even the skull.

The reasons why this idea may be faced with dispute is that cognition is identified by the consciousness, therefore it seems implausible for own consciousness to be able to extend outside the head.

There is unmeasurable way to account for psychophysical body. It is seen that the body and the brain work similarly to the physical principle that governs other non-organic matter. In order to understand this better the body is seen as some sort of computer to be able to study neural circuits in the brain. Due to the understanding of cognition, it becomes difficult to understand how consciousness, awareness is developed in order to engage with the physical environment and the internal space of your mind.

The concept of the mental state is a characteristic caused by effects of patterns of behavior. We condition ourselves to repeat patterns of behavior that will achieve an outcome we desire. This is our external extension to the world. However, how do we internally engage with our mind from external environmental stimuli. You cannot know. Everyone is different.

One issue with the extended mind  that is still faced today, is whether it is classified as a mental state or a physical property of the brain. There are projects that exist today that tries to answer this question. We have come to understand more about the brain than we did before, and there is a divide between Mind property of the Brain and Mental Health.

Mental Health in the scientific field different to Neuroscience. Due to the philosophical question of externalism and internalism. There is a discourse of understanding on how we can combine these two fields for better solutions for Mental Health sufferers. The best we can do is study behaviour and make sure you are not a danger to yourself or to others. Psychiatry and Psychology are sciences for observation purposes only. It becomes unethical trying to apply methods of manipulation to try and CHANGE someone’s mind and functioning. The only clones that should exist are ROBOTS not HUMANS. You will find in this review, it is impossible to clone an exact replica of the Human Brain.

With the emergence of Deep Mind by Google, the self learning computer has been able to replicate the functionings of the working memory and mind of the Human Brain, more or less but it is complex, it’s filled with BILLIONS of neurons. This is why advocates of Mental Health need to leave those that have had a disturbance of the mind alone. Stop dissecting the mind, you will never come to understand the SELF totally. Don’t go into your head too deeply or to someone else’s. It is like looking directly at the sun, you will be left confused and singed.

This post is to show how complex one mind is and not as easy to explain like a systematic system of computational processes. As discussed previous in post of what is a computer NWO: PRESENTING WHAT ARE COMPUTERS, you will see a computer has a limited perception of awareness. It is given the understanding of different ways of behaving on command. A human brain doesn’t or it might, this is is why the mind can only be explored as philosophy. T

he extension of the Mind, which is being reviewed in this post shows there are many different aspects to take into consideration when one navigates in the reality of their environment. The choice of how the brain perceives the world depends on external and internal stimuli. You do have two different worlds within yourself working simultaneously. It is still hard to determine whether the way we behave is learned, innate or a mixture of both. We have computational operating systems for us to evaluate further, but we cannot go as fast as we want to due to learning, due to constant evolving understanding of behaviour and cognition. So when you feel you have solved a hypothesis of the brain, it has already manipulated itself to something else, and this has nothing to do with an attention deficit.

Looking at neurons is like looking at follicle of a hair strand in order to be able to understand the full head of hair. Humans have BILLIONS of nerves, they are constantly detaching and reattaching. Plus there different types of nervous systems within the Human Body. The Heart and The Body, muscle and organs and The Brain. So imagine how complicated your physical body is let alone the mind.

To know what a mental process is, it is vital to know what is the mind and where does the mind begin and end. The extended mind thesis is a good starting place to provide some awareness of the mind. This thesis is associated with externalism and internalism; the philosophy of the mind.

Perception is different to every individual, No ONE thinks the same. If you had a group of people and asked them what the colour blue looks like in their mind, it is guaranteed no one will think of the same colour hue of blue.

Pragnaz is a term used to describe how our mind fill out missing information of ambiguous structures or designs to create a coherent picture. The laws of perceptual organization are set principles on how we see things. For example the Olympic logo is seen as a series of circles and not as circles creating other complicated shapes. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. In perceptual terms, an image is perceived according to the organization of the elements within it, rather than the nature of the individual elements. The conviction of yourself decides then what you want to see.

Perception is generally conceived in philosophy of the mind purely as an internal matter,  just like software. Your mind requires external links, such as environmental stimuli to drive action and action is determined by skin bound only. You mind and body may function together and then separately not as a single unit.

Externalism and Internalism

Internalism is the belief that there is an internal connection between one conviction of X to be involved with the motivation to do X. The externalists claim there is not internal connection necessary for conviction of X to be involved with the motivation of X. Sometimes it is best to just accept both concepts, as it depends on the motivation of the individual and how they utilize their mind. Externalist claim one’s mental state is dependent on their relationships with the external world or one’s environment. When the world leaks into the mind, we become more inline with internalism. Meaning we sometimes perform actions in our heads that we usually perform in the world. We can manually workout a jigsaw puzzle and find geometric relations between shapes with the mind.

Externalism is a broad collection of philosophical views that consider aspects of mental content and activity. Although this can limiting to cognition or can be too broad to help to deal with issues of consciousness. Cognitive science offers models of information processing and classical intelligence in order to create a representational view of computational theory of the mind, which has helped the emergence of artificial intelligence.

The extended mind hypostasis was advocated by Clark and Chalmers, who supposed that as part of our cognitive resources, our memories and mental states are used for different types of processing and must be analyzed like ‘add ons’ you would find in software, for a degree of reliability and availability. They are there when we need them, and we feel that we are able to rely on these add on extensions in order to give us true information. Clark and Chalmers call this active externalism, a contrast of previous representations of externalism in which environmental structures are passively involved in the cognitive processing. All components in the cognitive resource center play on the mind play as active role in governing behavior. By allowing active externalism, more natural explanations for all types of actions may be formed.

A good observation of this phenomenon of the philosophy of the extended mind is witnessing children of an age that do not have a good understanding their mechanical movements when operating software systems on their smartphones. Infants just perform simple sequence of pressing the right button and using the swipe motion to change the screen they are currently viewing. They do not get taught, they just do and are not able to explain why, only what for.

It is guaranteed in the world we live in today, a 3-year-old will understand mechanical sequence regardless of what country they come from due to universal application of cloud solutions. An early memory of mine, before learning how to read, I understood performing an action, will have an outcome of what I wanted from my mind. Different colors, shapes and images help differentiate between the VHS tapes especially when they were not in their cases.

Using Emotional Intelligence 

Emotions is a learned human behavior. Applying learned humanistic behaviors in order to apply the right action in order to achieve a goal is due to being given the set of rules to follow in order to get a desired outcome. This is what organic human behavior is known for to improve artificial intelligence. Since Computers are unable to feel and just understand in-put and out-put functions, the self learning computer can learn much quicker than the average human to conquer autonomy in self functioning processes. However it cannot decide what the best course of action is when the emotional value of the action has been misplaced, for example Sarcasm.

If both processes in the head and the environment are necessary to successfully complete a cognitive task, then environmental processes are just as cognitive. By identifying the environmental features and structures activity involved in processing, may play a role in explaining consciousness and the mind of a human organism, however, not all cognitive states are conscious states.

All processed actions are at the border of consciousness and play a crucial role in cognitive processing. We have internal cognitive processes we can carry around regardless where we are or what we are thinking about presently. External tools are always available and everything else is a extra add on. We do not just rely on the naked mind. Much of Clark and Chalmers argument is based on their Otto and Inga analogy, which illustrates how information and behavior can be processed internally or externally and still produces the same type of behavior. The analogy involves Inga a woman, who is cognitively unimpaired using biological memory, where as Otto a man with dementia, requiring to use a notebook to support his performance in environmental tasks. They both go to see an art exhibition, Inga remembers the address using her memory, and Otto consults his notebook for the information. Clark and Chalmers argue that the information in the notebook functions like biological memory; it is just the information lies beyond the skin but still produces the same output of getting to the museum. It is simply that, with respect to the role that the long-term encodings of the mind, play guiding current responses, both modes of storage can be seen as supporting dispositional beliefs. It is the way the information is poised to guide reasoning and behavior that counts.

The relation of external resources and agents are active in the formulation of belief and action then the two are presented as sort of a coupling system, which drives cognitive processes into the ‘here and now’ making the extended mind thesis apart of active externalism as opposed to content externalism. If a person is duplicated and where asked about their belief about water, their beliefs will be different to the original person because of the external features that have been passively made aware of.

Brain coupling is not 100% reliable but it is sufficient. The biological brain occasionally loses capacities temporally in sleep, intoxication, and emotion just as if the notebook was lost. Clark and Chalmers conclude that the cognitive process with the extension of the world makes a single cognitive system.

The extended mind thesis identifies the brain, body and environment to be linked as constitutive processes, this offers an explanation that cognitive processes are not located exclusively inside the skin of an organism that uses cognition, there are certain mental states that do not concretely exist but are still recognized. It is wrong to object that the mind is only in the head, it projects and extends out into the environment. Beliefs can be created from features of the environment that help drive cognitive processes. If both processes in the head and processes in the environment are necessary to successfully compare a cognitive task then environmental processes are just as cognitive. 

What makes the extended mind thesis quite daunting is that there is no empirical term to describe what makes something a cognitive representation; there is no main theory and no criteria for something to be classified as a representation. This makes it difficult to create a Robot Human.

Why is the philosophy of the mind important? Plainly, every individual and their mind has their own system processing ability to understand their reality and navigate in their environment. There are questions that arise if such representations exist that are involved in the cognitive system. This is hard to give a definitive answer, as how is one suppose to decide what elements of derived representations are suppose to help drive the cognitive process.

The idea of the extended mind is that a cognitive agent casually interacts with a object in the extended world, the agent’s cognitive processing is constituted by processes extended into the object, gives the assumption that there is a successful established interaction with the object and internal representation to interact with the environment.

We can consider cognitive agents independently of their environment in order to be able to process behavior. These observations suggest that the evaluation of the extended mind is a complicated one. It shows that we cannot refute the hypothesis of extended cognition on the grounds on the combination of the brain, body, and environment to form a normal human cognitive processor. The implications that follow cognitive psychology includes the focus on the individual cognizer in isolation from the ‘real’ world and decoupling of cognitive processes to see their individual effects and to be able to name and explain internal structures and mechanism in cognitive states and mechanisms.

Try and understand the mind you will find it gets complicated. To try and get one to submit to your way of cognitive processing you will find a push back. Respect consciousness separate from the mind. We do not perceive the external environment in the same way nor do we take the same external or internal stimuli in order to engage with our internal matter or the world we are presently in.

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